1922 – Norman Studios

Above: Norman Studios Historical under Regeneration: Black Cinema, 1898-1971: The Race Films Gallery

From WPA Timeline Records: “Norman Studios begins operation, making feature-length films and shorts in which black actors star…in roles comparable to those played by white actors in other movies.”

Posters, stills, programs, and playbills from movies may be seen as “proto-zines” in their ability to communicate narratives by using art, text, photographs, etc. (Bill Ectric King)